Statement of Need

The control of ocular inflammation is a critical aspect of medical and surgical ophthalmic practice. Despite their side effects, antiinflammatory drugs are used to treat a very wide range of conditions throughout the eye, from ocular surface disease and allergic conjunctivitis to posterior segment conditions. Use of antiinflammatory agents is also critical in ocular surgery, contributing greatly to patient comfort and positive outcomes.

The ocular antiinflammatory landscape is changing as research reveals more about the role of inflammation in a range of ocular conditions and as new antiinflammatory agents enter the market.1,2 Twenty years ago, for example, the idea of using a topical corticosteroid to treat dry eye and/or allergic conjunctivitis was viewed with alarm; today, it is accepted practice.

Although corticosteroids and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been the mainstays of the ocular anti-inflammatory armamentarium, a number of new agents with novel mechanisms of action (and new ocular drug delivery systems) have come to market or are being made ready for market.3,4

As indications expand and change, and as new drugs, formulations, and delivery systems become available, clinicians require up-to-date protocols for drug selection and use. Such protocols are also needed for routine (but nevertheless off-label) uses of corticosteroids and NSAIDs because important differences in efficacy, safety, and tolerability exist between these classes and among formulations within each of these classes.5,6

By putting the latest published evidence into the context of current clinical practice, Topics in Ocular Antiinflammatories equips ophthalmologists to maintain competencies and narrow gaps between their actual and optimal inflammation management practices, across the range of clinical situations in which current and novel ocular antiinflammatories may be used.


  1. Song JS, Hyon JY, Lee D, et al. Current practice pattern for dry eye patients in South Korea: a multicenter study. Korean Journal of Ophthalmology. 2014;28(2):115-21.
  2. Ciulla TA, Harris A, McIntyre N, Jonescu-Cuypers C. Treatment of diabetic macular edema with sustained-release glucocorticoids: intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide, dexamethasone implant, and fluocinolone acetonide implant. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2014;15(7):953-9.
  3. Maya JR, Sadiq MA, Zapata LJ, et al. Emerging therapies for noninfectious uveitis: what may be coming to the clinics. J Ophthalmol. 2014;2014:310329.
  4. Sheppard JD, Torkildsen GL, Lonsdale JD, et al, and the OPUS-1 Study Group. Lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5.0% for treatment of dry eye disease: results of the OPUS-1 phase 3 study. Ophthalmology. 2014 Feb;121(2):475-83.
  5. Fong R, Leitritz M, Siou-Mermet R, Erb T. Loteprednol etabonate gel 0.5% for postoperative pain and inflammation after cataract surgery: results of a multicenter trial. Clin Ophthalmic. 2012;6:1113-24.
  6. Singer M, Cid MD, Luth J, et al. Incidence of corneal melt in clinical practice: our experience vs a meta-analysis of the literature. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2012;S1:003.

Off-label Use Statement: This work may discuss off-label uses of medications.

General Information: This CME activity is sponsored by the University of Florida College of Medicine and is supported by an unrestricted educational grant from Shire.

Accreditation Statement: This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and Policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the University of Florida College of Medicine and Candeo Clinical/Science Communications, LLC. The University of Florida College of Medicine is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians. 

Credit Designation Statement: The University of Florida College of Medicine designates this educational activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.