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Issue 64 - December 2016

HIV-associated Ocular Surface and Anterior Segment Infections
Ron Adelman, MD, MPH, MBA


Topical Ophthalmic Antibiotics: Current Options and Role of Fortified Antibiotics
Bennie H. Jeng, MD, MS

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe the clinical presentation of common infections of the ocular surface and anterior segment associated with HIV/AIDS. 

  • Describe the key elements in diagnosing and treating infections of the ocular surface and anterior segment in patients suspected of HIV infection.

  • Employ a combination of fortified agents to treat potentially serious corneal ulcers.


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Issue 63 - November 2016

Fluoroquinolone Generations: What’s Next?
Parag A. Majmudar, MD

Applying MIC in Antibiotic Drug Selection and Resistance Prevention
Joseph M. Blondeau, PhD

Learning Objectives:

  • Factor antibiotic generation into clinical decision-making in the treatment and prevention of ocular infection.

  • Recognize limitations of generational antibiotic categorization. 

  • Explain changing trends in antibiotic resistance to common ocular pathogens and the techniques used to establish these.

  • Describe strategies for minimizing antibiotic resistance through changes in clinical practice.


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Issue 62 - September 2016

Intraocular Antibiotics for Cataract Surgery Prophylaxis
William B. Trattler, MD

Keratoconjunctivitis and Blepharokeratoconjunctivitis
Raj K. Goyal, MD, MPH

Learning Objectives:

  • Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of currently available intraocular antibiotic prophylaxis methods.  

  • Choose appropriate antibiotic prophylactic regimen in cataract surgery based on efficacy and safety considerations.

  • Improve diagnosis and management of KC and BKC.

  • Identify and mitigate risk factors for ocular surface infection.


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Issue 61 - June 2016

Preventing and Managing Bleb-related Infections 
Sameh Mosaed, MD

Generic vs. Branded Antibiotics: Do the Differences Matter?
John R. Wittpenn, MD

Learning Objectives:

  • Articulate risk factors for bleb-related infection.

  • Detect and take appropriate initial steps to manage bleb leak and related infection.

  • Improve clinicians’ drug selection by identifying patient/disease situations in which there may be clinical reasons to consider branded drug rather than generic.

  • State two reasons why differences in the formulations may matter more for topical ocular drugs than oral agents.


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Issue 60 - April 2016

Flap-related Infections 
Steven Schallhorn, MD

Factors in Infectious Complications of Corneal Transplant
Bennie H. Jeng, MD


Learning Objectives:

  • Explain changing trends in infectious keratitis following LASIK.

  • Minimize the risk of flap-related infections in LASIK patients by improving surgical and clinical approaches.

  • Describe factors related to the increase in fungal infection incidence following corneal transplantation.

  • Reduce risk for bacterial and fungal infection in corneal transplant recipients.


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Issue 59 - March 2016

Herpetic Anterior Uveitis 
C. Stephen Foster, MD, FACS

Pragmatic Microbiology for Eyecare Providers
Deepinder K. Dhaliwal, MD


Learning Objectives:

  • Recognize a herpetic etiology in patients with anterior uveitis based on distinctive clinical findings.

  • Formulate the appropriate treatment strategy for presumed or proved herpetic anterior uveitis to reduce tissue damage and serious complications.

  • Obtain an adequate ocular tissue sample to identify pathogens present in superficial ocular infections.

  • Determine which cases are most in need of microbiology laboratory assessment.


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Issue 58 - December 2015

The Human Microbiota: New Frontiers in Ophthalmology and Beyond
Rob Knight, PhD

Acanthamoeba Keratitis: Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Medical Therapy
John E. Sutphin, Jr., MD

Learning Objectives:

  • Discuss the therapeutic potential associated with microbiome modulation.

  • Describe the status of ocular surface microbiome characterization.

  • Make timely diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis based on patient’s history and clinical findings.

  • Choose appropriate antimicrobial therapy for patients diagnosed with Acanthamoeba keratitis.


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Issue 57 – October 2015

Keeping MRSA in Check
Francis S. Mah, MD

Exotic Ocular Infections: Beyond the Tropics
Sivakumar R. Rathinam, PhD

Learning Objectives:

  • Identify patients at risk for MRSA colonization.

  • Design strategies to reduce MRSA transmission in the clinic and operating room.

  • Identify signs and symptoms of exotic ocular infections that are present in the West.

  • Conduct a thorough history when exotic infection is suspected.


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Issue 56 – August 2015

Atypical Organisms in Postoperative Infections
Virender Singh Sangwan, MD

The Quinolone Antibiotics: Past, Present, and Future
Christopher N. Ta, MD

Learning Objectives:

  • Distinguish presentation of typical vs. atypical postoperative infection.

  • Lower their rates of missed diagnosis of rare organisms.

  • Make maximally effective treatment decisions, employing both the older and newer generation fluoroquinolones.

  • Design treatment protocols that minimize the risk of provoking fluoroquinolone resistance.


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Issue 55 – June 2015

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in Ophthalmology
Janet L. Davis, MD, MA

Infectious Scleritis: A Review and Update
Anat Galor, MD

Learning Objectives:

  • Define a role for PCR within their own practices

  • Describe the types of PCR in current use

  • Identify clues that should raise suspicion of infectious scleritis

  • Discuss when to obtain a culture of conjunctival or corneal scrapings in cases of potential infectious scleritis


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Issue 54 – April 2015

The Spectrum of Options for Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Cataract Surgery
Rosa M. Braga-Mele, MD, MEd, FRCSC

Infectious Aspects of Blepharitis
Preeya K. Gupta, MD

Learning Objectives:

  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of current antiinfective prophylaxis options for cataract surgery.

  • Establish an antiinfective prophylaxis approach in clinical practice that effectively minimizes cataract patients’ risk of endophthalmitis.

  • Consider and recognize Demodex infestation in patients with anterior blepharitis.

  • Formulate a staged treatment strategy for patients with staphylococcal blepharitis.


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Issue 53 – March 2015

Culturing Ocular Infections in the 21st Century
Joseph Blondeau, PhD

Advances in Managing Adenovirus Ocular Infections
Shachar Tauber, MD

Learning Objectives:

  • Refine their practice of ocular culture and transport for a range of infection types.

  • Interpret reports from microbiologic laboratory more effectively.

  • Name two factors that distinguish possible treatment options for adenovirus conjunctivitis.


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Issue 52 – December 2014

Does Formulation Matter? Formulation and Potential Adverse Events
John D. Sheppard, MD

Current Strategies for Managing Ocular Adenovirus Infection
Shachar Tauber, MD

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe the ways in which generic drugs can differ from their branded predecessor and discuss possible clinical consequences of those differences.

  • State the advantages and potential downsides of high viscosity agents used to prolong the on-eye residence time of topical ophthalmic drugs.

  • Articulate a protocol for isolating, diagnosing, and managing patients with ocular adenovirus infection.


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Issue 51 – October 2014

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Corneal Infection
Linda D. Hazlett, PhD

Mechanisms and Clinical Implications of Antibiotic Resistance
Joseph M. Blondeau, PhD

Learning Objectives:

  • State two virulence factors produced by P. aeruginosa.

  • Identify corneal ulcer patients at high risk for P. aeruginosa keratitis and promptly initiate appropriate antimicrobial treatment.

  • Devise effective strategies for antimicrobial selection in an environment that is becoming increasingly rife with drug-resistant pathogens.


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Issue 50 – August 2014

Current Thinking on the Prevention and Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Ocular Infection
Francis S. Mah, MD

Innate Infectious Defenses of the Ocular Surface
Jillian F. Meadows, OD, MS; Kelly K. Nichols, OD, MPH, PhD

Learning Objectives:

  • Select appropriate agents for the empirical treatment of suspected MRSA infections.

  • Provide meaningful guidance to patients for maintaining their normal ocular surface protective mechanisms


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Issue 49 – June 2014

Emerging Ocular Pathogens and the Ocular Surface Microbiome
Eduardo Alfonso, MD; Ying Guo, MBBS, PhD

The Role of Bacteria in the Pathogenesis of Blepharitis
Sharmini Balakrishnan, MD; Stephen C. Pflugfelder, MD

Learning Objectives:

  • Recognize the potential for MRSA infection and select appropriate antibiotics for empirical treatment prior to receipt of culture results.

  • Select appropriate antibiotics for the management of blepharitis.


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Issue 48 – April 2014

Overnight Contact Lens Wear and Microbial Keratitis: Two Views
Bruce H. Koffler, MD; Helen K. Wu, MD

Viral Chorioretinitis: Current Approaches to Diagnosis and Management
Thomas Albini, MD

Learning Objectives:

  • Evaluate orthokeratology as an option for the reduction of myopia progression in young patients.

  • Select antiviral therapy and formulate appropriate treatment plan for patients with acute retinal necrosis (ARN) or CMV retinitis


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Issue 47 – February 2014

Lessons from an Atypical Presentation of Herpetic Ocular Disease
Christopher Rapuano, MD

Topical Ophthalmic Antibiotics: Current Options and Role of Fortified Antibiotics
Bennie Jeng, MD

Learning Objectives:

  • Reduce patient morbidity through earlier detection of atypical ocular viral disease.

  • Employ a combination of fortified agents to treat potentially serious corneal ulcers.


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Issue 46 – November 2013

Sound Ocular Antibiotic Use in an Environment of Widespread Resistance
John Affeldt, MD

Ocular Herpes Simplex: Current Thinking on Pathophysiology and Management
Christopher Rapuano, MD

Learning Objectives:

  • Improve outcomes in patients with ocular infections by taking the growing prevalence of multidrug resistant organisms into account when planning antibiotic treatment.

  • Employ key strategies for the treatment of infectious vs. inflammatory HSV keratitis.


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Issue 45 – October 2013

In the Pipeline: Drugs that Kill Pathogens with the Same Mechanism as Our Own White Blood Cells
Stephen Wilmarth, MD

Compounded Antibiotics: Risks and Benefits
Nick Mamalis, MD

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe distinctions between chlorotaurines and conventional antimicrobial agents.

  • Determine the potential risks and benefits of adopting intracameral antibiotic prophylaxis in their own surgical center.


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Issue 44 – September 2013

The Surprising Power of Bacterial Biofilms
Regis P. Kowalski, MS, [M]ASCP; Eric G. Romanowski, MS; Robert M.Q. Shanks, PhD

Polymicrobial Ocular Infection
John Sheppard, MD

Learning Objectives:

  • Explain biofilm resilience, specifically, a biofilm’s high tolerance of antibiotic therapy and discuss the clinical importance of biofilms in device-related infections.

  • List three risk factors for polymicrobial infection.

  • Identify diagnostic techniques for ocular infection.

  • Describe organisms that are associated with one another in concomitant infections.


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Issue 43 – August 2013

Combination Multidrug Therapy to Combat Increasing Drug Resistance: A Double-Edged Sword? 
Terrence P. O’Brien, MD

Rosacea and Ocular Infection
Preeya K. Gupta, MD

Learning Objectives:

  • Employ more effective regimens for the prevention and treatment of ocular infections, particularly infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  • Identify and treat the infectious complications of ocular rosacea.


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Issue 42 – July 2013

Corneal Collagen Crosslinking for Infection
Karim Makdoumi, MD, PhD

Antimicrobial Management of Patients with Ocular Trauma
Swati J. Parekh, MD; Jai G. Parekh, MD, MBA

Learning Objectives:

  • List three clincal situations in which photochemical therapy may be of benefit.

  • List four factors that may increase a patient’s risk of infection after an open globe injury.

  • Take preventative measures, including prompt wound closure and early use of systemic and topical antibiotics, to reduce the risk of posttraumatic endophthalmitis. 


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Issue 41 – June 2013

The Positive Benefits of a Negative Culture
John M. Blondeau, PhD

Optical Biopsy for the Diagnosis of Corneal Infections
Elmer Y. Tu, MD

Learning Objectives:

  • List three potential causes of a negative bacterial culture.

  • Discuss the positive uses of a negative culture.

  • Institute appropriate therapy earlier in the course of challenging cases of infectious keratitis through use of optical biopsy to make or confirm diagnoses.

  • Identify clinical situations in which confocal microscopy is likely to be of benefit.


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Issue 40 – May 2013

Infectious Complications of Corneal Transplants
Francis S. Mah, MD

Ocular Cytomegalovirus Infection in Immunocompetent Patients
Chee Soon Phaik, MD

Learning Objectives:

  • List and discuss risk factors for infection following penetrating and lamellar keratoplasty.

  • List the most common pathogens associated with anterior uveitis and corneal epitheliitis.

  • Compare and contrast the timing of intraocular infections in regards to the source of infection.

  • Discuss the diagnostic approach to anterior uveitis and corneal epitheliitis.

  • List and discuss the indications for various treatment modalities for anterior uveitis and corneal epitheliitis.


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Issue 39 – April 2013

Treatment of Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis
Stephen C. Kaufman, MD, PhD

Generic vs. Branded Antibiotics: Are There Differences? Do They Matter?
John R. Wittpenn, MD

Learning Objectives:

  • Make more accurate diagnoese of EKC through improved use of clinical evidence and advanced diagnostic tools.

  • Improve EKC treatment and patient counseling to lessen patient discomfort and prevent spread of EKC and associated ocular morbidity.

  • Improve clinician’s drug selection by identifying patient/disease situations in which there may be clinical reasons to consider branded drug rather than generic.

  • State two reasons why differences in teh formulations may matter more for topical ocular drugs than oral agents.


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Issue 38 – March 2013

The Quinolone Antibiotics: Past, Present, and Future
Christopher N. Ta, MD

Intracameral Prophylaxis: The ESCRS Study in Perspective
Peter Barry, FRCS

Learning Objectives:

  • Make maximally effective treatment decisions, employing both the older and newer generation fluoroquinolones.

  • Design treatment protocols that minimize the risk of provoking fluoroquinolone resistance.

  • Describe the benefits and risks of intracameral cefuroxime prophylaxis in cataract surgery.

  • Evaluate the impact of adopting cataract prophylaxis regimen that incorporates intracameral antibiotic injection.


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Issue 37 – February 2013

Herpectic Keratitis Following Laser Refractive Surgery
Herbert E. Kaufman, MD

Atypical Ocular Infections
Eduardo Alfonso, MD

Learning Objectives:

  • Reduce the risk of herpetic keratitis recurrence as a consequence of excimer laser refractive surgery in patients with a history of herpesvirus outbreaks.

  • Describe an appropriate prophylactic regimen for a refractive surgery candidate with a history of epithelial HSV keratitis.

  • Describe risk factors for acquisition of atypical ocular infections.